sudo|Xanthippe

But once I caught him when he was open like Silenus' statues, and I had a glimpse of the figures he keeps hidden within: they were so godlike — so bright and beautiful, so utterly amazing — that I no longer had a choice: I just had to do whatever he told me.

Tag: linux

Web browsers for Raspberry Pi (compiling Links)

Sometimes we want to use internet browser on Raspberry Pi, there are many that we can install and run, but most of them will be unusable due to theirs relatively high requirements. There are some nice alternatives to popular browser though. I consider browser such as Firefox, Chromium and Opera totally unusable on Raspberry Pi (even though you can run them). There is a second category of browsers, they are written usually especially for Linux, for example: Epiphany, Iceweasel, Icecat, Konqueror, Dillo. From these the last one seemed fastest for me. There is also option to use browser from third category: text browsers. Most popular are Lynx and Links. Lynx is great when you don’t care about graphics but sometimes we just need to see some images. There is nice solution for that. We can use Links in graphic mode.

Typing pacman -S links in console won’t help us, it won’t run in graphic mode because it wasn’t configured to do that at the time of compilation. We need to compile it on our own. Go there http://links.twibright.com/download.php and download package. When you’re ready unpack it with (I’m not sure if Arch has tar by default, if now: pacman -S tar):

tar -zxvf links-2.7.tar.gz

Before we start we need to resolve dependencies and other necessary things. Let’s begin with compilator and make program, then libraries:

pacman -Syu gcc make

pacman -S libjpeg libtiff zlib gzip

Now go to directory where you unpacked links. Type:

./configure –enable-graphics

make

sudo make install

Now start browser with:

links -g http://www.google.com

Conclusion: for me Epiphany is slower than Dillo which has equal speed to Links which I found more convenient. I also seems to me that Links is more responsive even though Dillo takes less ram when not in use.

Epiphany:

epiphany

Dillo:

dillo

Links in graphic mode:

links

There is how it looks in ps -aux:

solusip+   331  3.1 13.2  38940 24808 pts/1    S+   07:57   0:11 dillo
solusip+   220  0.7 13.3  36092 25044 ?        Ss   07:50   0:06 links
solusip+   240  9.5 28.2 298048 53008 ?        Ssl  07:56   0:41 epiphany

 

Archlinux on Raspberry Pi: sudo and window managers

There are couple thing you can do with your Arch to make it more adjusted to your preferences. This time I’ll show you how to configure sudo and install most popular window managers. Remember that you can get such configuration on every computer, not only on RPi.

Let’s start with sudo. Login as root and type

pacman -Syu sudo

After installing package type visudo. There will be ran vim version made especially for editing sudoers file. Right after first page you’ll find such line:

root ALL=(ALL) ALL

Go to line under it and press ‘i’ key on your keyboard to switch to insert mode. Then type:

your_user_name ALL=(ALL) ALL

Then press Escape, and type:

:wq

Press enter. That’s all. Relog to your account and check if sudo is working.

Now we’re ready to install a window manager. There is difference between it and desktop environment. I wanted to work with it on Raspberry Pi mainly because of its speed. Any WM is many times faster that any desktop environment. I never used them before and now I decided to start with FluxBox. So let’s install it. Log to user account and type:

sudo pacman -S fluxbox

After fluxbox is installed edit .xinitrc file in your home folder.

nano .xinitrc

exec startfluxbox

Save file and type startx.

You should see default fluxbox’s screen. Now it’s time to configure it. Let’s begin from installing program called feh. It’s responsible for handling images. Right click on your desktop and select xterm. Then type:

sudo pacman -S feh

I guess that we need a file manager. There are many options, I’ve chosen pcmanfm:

sudo pacman -S pcmanfm

screen2

Now let’s deal with fluxbox’s menu. I used program called menumaker to generate menu containing all installed applications.

sudo pacman -S menumaker

mmaker -f FluxBox

Now you’ve got all applications in menu. You can still edit entries order. To do that edit with your favourite edit that file: ~/.fluxbox/menu. For example:

nano ~/.fluxbox/menu

screen3

screen4

We’ve got most basic programs now. Let’s make FluxBox prettier. There is nice website you can get fluxbox’s themes: http://customize.org/fluxbox. It would be great to do everything on Raspberry Pi. Install web browser and go that site (I installed Epiphany).

When you’ll download a style unpack it to ~/.fluxbox/styles and then choose it from menu. Now it looks really better. But we still have no icons in files manager. We can install for example these:

pacman -S tangerine-icon-theme

sudo echo “gtk-icon-theme-name = “Tangerine” >> /etc/gtk-2.0/gtkrc

screen5

screen6

Well it’s time to add a wallpaper. First get any. Then exit FluxBox. We need to edit .xinitrc again.

nano .xinitrc

Put before exec startfluxbox that:

fbsetbg ~/Documents/wallpaper.jpg

This is how my FluxBox looks after all these operations.

screen7

Archlinux on Raspberry Pi: installing xorg and LXDE

After 3 months of using Raspberry Pi my SD Card has broken. I bought new one and decided to install Arch this time. There is disc image with preconfigured system: http://www.raspberrypi.org/downloads. We could of course install it on our own, but I have no special needs, so this package is ideal for me. Let’s download it and write it on SD Card. To do that we need to determine localization of new card. You can use ls /dev/sd* and check what’s new or simply use GParted. In my case it’s /dev/sdb. To write img to disc use program called dd. I did it in that way:

sudo dd if=~/archlinux-hf-2012-09-18.img of=/dev/sdb

If your card is bigger that 2GB you should also resize / partition. You can do it easily with GParted. Just resize it to disk limit. Now we are ready to boot our RPi. Plug the ethernet cable and boot device. I’m doing everything, till the moment of xorg installation, via SSH, without using its video ports. Check device’s IP and connect. It my case it was root@192.168.0.18 (simply type ssh root@192.168.0.18 – you need to have openssh installed). First part of that address is the account we want to connect with. That is actually the only account in that system now. Its password is root, so right after connecting, type passwd and type doubly the new one.

After doing that we’ll need to update our system. To do that type:

pacman -Syu

Now we are ready to install xorg. Type

pacman -S xorg

When it’ll ask about selection, don’t give anything on input, just press enter. After installing xorg, install 3 things more: xorg-xinit (to be able to use startx), xorg-twm and xterm (to test if xorg is running properly). Do it with:

pacman -S xorg-xinit xorg-twm xterm

Now you should connect your Raspberry Pi to an video output. When you’ll be ready use that command (not with ssh anymore):

startx

You should see something like this:

xorg

To close it, type exit on left terminal or, in case you don’t have your mouse connected, type pkill x on this active by default.

Now it’s time to create a new user. It’s wise not to use root account when using x. To do that use that command (XYZ will be the name of your user):

useradd -m -g users -G wheel,storage,power -s /bin/bash XYZ

Now set password for new user:

passwd XYZ

No it’s time to install lxde. It’s probably the lightest environment. You can choose alternatively xfce (which I prefer) but it’ll work a bit slower. If you decided to use lxde, type:

pacman -S lxde

When installation is completed, log out (by typing logout) and log on your newly created user.

Now type:

ls -la | grep .xinitrc

If there’s such file, you need to remove it by typing:

rm .xinitrc

Now we’re going to create a new one. Type:

cat >> .xinitrc

And then:

exec startlxde

When you’re done, press Ctrl + D. Make sure that your file contains only that line. Now it’s a big moment. Type

startx

and wait for LXDE to start.

That is the most basic way of doing it. Your LXDE screen should look like this right after installation:

lxde

How to share your terminal log

Sometimes we need to show somebody output of our linux terminal. Rewriting it isn’t really best idea. We could for example use cat to stream output into file and then upload it on ftp server but that’s not the fastest way. There is great website which is a helping hand in such situation – Sprunge.us. We can forward our stream using curl to service that is running there. For example we want show someone all groups that contains root account. To achieve that in output we would normally type:

cat /etc/group | grep root

But we want to stream it out to sprunge. There is nothing easier. On the end of the line we need to type (after |):

curl -F sprunge=@- sprunge.us

So the whole line will look like this:

cat /etc/group | grep root | curl -F sprunge=@- sprunge.us

Two seconds after typing that you’ll get an url address in such format: http://sprunge.us/XXXX